General Patho-physiology

Inflammation

Inflammation is the response of living tissues & cells to any kind of Injury

such as wounds , burns , trauma , toxic substances or Invading pathogens ( Bacteria , parasites , .. etc ) to protect it self .


Basic Symptoms of inflammation :

4 symptoms are commonly developed at the site of infection , mainly due to dilation & increased permeability of blood capillaries at the sight of infection or injury ,

Hint : Dilation & Increased permeability result from the action of Inflammatory mediators released by immune cells

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1- Redness

as the vessels become dilated , a bigger blood volume is maintained & more blood flows at the inflammation site giving it a characteristic red color .



2- Hotness

the increased blood flow provides warmth to the inflammation site .

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3- Edema

( ” Oedma ” in British English )

increased permeability allows immune cells as Leukocytes to pass through the capillaries in order to reach the injury and deal with it

along with these leukocytes , plasma protenis also pass out through the capillaries and diffuse around infected cells

coagulation of these plasma proteins surrounding the site of inflammation isolates the infected cells from the rest of the tissues just like a fence surrounding a farm, This helps in preventing the spread of infection

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4- Pain

the released inflammatory mediators make the nerve terminals very sensitive so we feel the pain .

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here is a Beautifully animated inflammation video to make things more clear :) :

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although it’s not cool to experience any of the inflammation symptoms , these mechanisms are life saving and protect you from micro organisms attacks .

this good side of inflammation is called acute inflammation , where the resolution mechanisms relieve the symptoms gradually after the elimination of the danger from the body .

Faliure of these resolution mechanisms leads to a long term inflammation even after the fight is over , this is known as Chronic inflammation

Hint :

Resolution is the action of the our bodies anti-inflammatory mediators that Originate from cell membrane phospholipids ,

( ex : Resolvine ) , they are produced as a response to inflammation by inflammatory mediators stimulation


popular Anti-inflammatory medications :

– Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs ) such as aspirin , ibuprofen , diclofenac sodium or potassium , . . etc
– Corticosteroids
Hint : Other medications including methotrexate, cyclophosphamide  – which are used in Chemotherapy for treating cancer – could be used as anti-inflammatory in certain cases as joint pains but in relatively smaller doses than that prescribed in chemotherapy .

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.::. Hint .::.


Considering Salmon , Krill , Fish oils in diet is a very good habit especially for old people .

they are full of Omega 3 Fatty acids , which is a big source of Resolvine

+ taking daily small doses of aspirin ( 20 – 30 mg ) acts as oxidizing agent and doubles the amount Resolvine produced by Omega 3 fatty acids ,

so the risk of developing chronic inflammations decreases as the resolution mechanisms are enhanced by providing More Resolvine to the body .



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References:

pathophysiology made incredibly easy ( 4th edition )

cleveland clinic official website

Lectures in principles of pharmacology  ( book by department of pharmacology & toxicology in My faculty )

Pathophysiology Made Incredibly Easy!p

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