PEBC - Evaluating Examination

Anatomy Tips for PEBC EE

Basic concepts & tips of anatomy should be covered in PEBC EE, according to the blue print for EE Physiology/ Functional Anatomy is included and should be revised.

Let’s go – EE anatomy tips:

Body Movements:

  1. abduction : moving a limb away in the frontal plane from the median plane of the body, spreading the fingers apart.
  2. adduction : opposite of abduction, movement of a limb toward the body mid-line.
  3. flexion : Bending of a part of the body i.e (decreases the angle of the joint and brings two bones closer together).
  4. extension : opposite of flexion; movement in the saggital plane that increases the angle of the joint or distance between two bones or parts of the body.
  5. dorsiflexion : lifting the foot so the superior surface approaches the shin, standing on the heels, moving upward.
  6. plantar flexion : pointing the toes.
  7. Pronation : Turning the hand so that the palm is down.
  8. Supination : Turning the hand so that the palm is up.
  9. Proximal: Closer to the point of attachment along the axis.
  10. Distal: Further from the point of attachment along the axis.
  11. Lateral view : from the side of the body.
  12. Medial view : from the middle of body.
  13. Superior: Up/above along the axis of upright posture (upwards in standard anatomical position). This is also called “Cranial” or sometimes “Cephalic”.
  14. Inferior: Down/below along the axis of upright posture. This is equivalent to “Caudal”.
  15. Anterior: towards the belly side. This is also known as “Ventral”
  16. Posterior: towards the back side. This is also known as “Dorsal”

Illustration By Video

Types  of Tissues:

  1. Epithelial Tissue : Covers body and organ surfaces, lines body cavities, and form glands. Involved with protection, absorption, excretion, secretion, diffusion and filtration.
  2. Connective Tissue : binds , supports and protects body parts & stores energy and minerals.
  3. Muscle Tissue : Skeletal, cardiac and smooth muscle tissues. (Movement Functions)
  4. Nervous Tissue : Transmits nerve impulses and co-ordinates body activities.

Tendon vs Ligament vs Cartilage :

  • Tendons attach the muscles to bones.
  • Ligaments connect bones to bones at the joint.
  • Cartilage is a substance which covers the ends of the bones.

 

 

Source: bbc.co.uk

 

 

Anatomical planes :

Coronal Plane (Frontal Plane) : A vertical plane running from side to side, it divides the body or any of its parts into anterior and posterior portions.

Sagittal Plane (Lateral Plane) : A vertical plane running from front to back, it divides the body or any of its parts into right and left sides.

Axial Plane (Transverse Plane) : A horizontal plane; divides the body or any of its parts into upper and lower parts.

Median plane : Sagittal plane through the midline of the body, it divides the body or any of its parts into right and left halves.

Body Positions :

 

Covered before but I’m going to explain 2 important positions :

Fowler’s position : Categorized high, semi & low Fowler’s position based on sitting angle. it is seated position with back support ( Remember it by hospital bed and you control it by angle).

Trendelenburg position :  Head is lowered and feet are elevated.

 

Body Joints:

 

 

 Joint Name

Bones of the Joint

Type of Movement

ShoulderHumerus, scapula and clavicleFlexion, extension, horizontal flexion, horizontal extension, abduction, adduction, rotation, circumduction, elevation, depression, protraction and retraction
ElbowHumerus, radius and ulnaFlexion and extension
WristRadius, ulna and carpalsFlexion, extension, abduction, adduction and circumduction
SacroiliacSacrum and iliumVery limited range due to strong ligaments
Hip

(ball and socket synovial joint)

Femur and pelvisFlexion, extension, horizontal flexion, horizontal extension, abduction, adduction, rotation and circumduction
KneeFemur, patella, tibia and fibulaFlexion and Extension
AnkleTibia, fibula and tarsalsPlantar flexion, dorsiflexion, inversion, eversion, supination and pronation

 

 

Major Muscle Groups:

You have to know the location of each muscle & direction either posterior or anterior.

Tips to be continues with quizzes!

 

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