Pharmaceutical Antidotes

In our pursuit of optimal patient care, antidotes stand as vital tools. These specialized interventions are designed to counteract the harmful effects of poisonings or excessive medication doses. Our comprehensive compilation is here to provide pharmacists like you with an in-depth overview of commonly used pharmaceutical antidotes, along with the specific substances or drugs they work against.

Acetaminophen OverdoseN-acetylcysteine (NAC)
Anticholinergic ToxicityPhysostigmine
Benzodiazepine OverdoseFlumazenil
Beta/Calcium Blockers ODGlucagon, Calcium Chloride
Carbon Monoxide PoisoningHyperbaric Oxygen Therapy
Cyanide PoisoningHydroxocobalamin, Sodium Thiosulfate, Sodium Nitrite
Digoxin ToxicityDigoxin-specific Fab fragments (Digoxin-specific antibody fragments)
Ethylene Glycol or Methanol PoisoningFomepizole, Ethanol
Heparin OverdoseProtamine
Insulin OverdoseGlucose
Iron OverdoseDeferoxamine
Isoniazid OverdosePyridoxine (Vitamin B6)
Lead PoisoningDimercaprol (BAL), Succimer, Calcium Disodium Versenate (EDTA)
Methemoglobinemia (Nitrate/Nitrite Poisoning)Methylene Blue
Methotrexate ToxicityLeucovorin (Folinic Acid)
Opioid OverdoseNaloxone
Organophosphate/Carbamate PoisoningAtropine, Pralidoxime (2-PAM)
Salicylate PoisoningSodium Bicarbonate, Hemodialysis (in severe cases)
Serotonin SyndromeCyproheptadine
Snakebite EnvenomationVarious antivenom products, depending on the snake species
Tricyclic Antidepressant OverdoseSodium Bicarbonate, Physostigmine
Warfarin Overdose/Excessive BleedingPhytonadione (Vitamin K)
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